At the end of World War II, when land was scarce, Toyota redefined manufacturing processes to be Lean. Lean processes, based on value stream mapping, focus on greater value for the customer with fewer resources. What surprised me in the writing of the recent Supply Chain Metrics That Matter Report on Automotive is that Toyota is at the same point in 2014 on operating margin and inventory turns that the company was at in 2006. In addition, Japanese automotive companies that have a higher adoption of Lean processes have lower results on operating margins and Return on Invested Capital (ROIC). What do you think? Why did Lean processes not deliver a competitive advantage for Toyota?